keith harmon snow
“Humankind is condemned to bet on an uncertain future. The stakes have become phenomenally high: affluence, equity, democracy, human tolerance, peaceful coexistence between nations, races, sects, sexes, parties, all are in jeopardy.” 
William R. Catton, Jr.
1980 (p. 262).
Author’s Note, May 23, 2005:
This stuff is very real. Presented herein are examples of what is already occurring, and what we can expect as possible repercussions of global climatic mayhem. Again, these things are already happening. However, it is important to note that there are multiple scenarios, and no one knows what we can actually expect, or what will actually happen. Humanity has an overwhelming capacity to respond positively, but it will require a major change of consciousness and action.
The Beginning of the End:
The alarms were sounded decades ago. Evidence was ignored; as often as not the evidence was actively buried. However, in much of the developing world, environmental disruption is already very severe; indeed, it is cataclysmic. While not so obvious, or so easily interpreted, climate instability is affecting Massachusetts, and its citizens, today. The evidence is clear: Climatic mayhem -- a more appropriate description of the human-induced climate instabilities we now face – is upon us.
To comprehend the perversity and mental illness of our leadership, consider that instead of rational policies and programs aimed at mitigating climate change, and protecting the environment for the betterment of all people and all species, today and tomorrow, the military-industrial complex has invested billions of dollars into research and development of weather-as-weapon technologies (see: OUT OF THE BLUE -- on this web site.).
“Despite a vast body of scientific knowledge, the issue of deliberate climatic manipulations for military use has never been explicitly part of the United Nations agenda on climate change… The clash between official negotiators, environmentalists and American business lobbies has centered on Washington's outright refusal to abide by commitments on carbon dioxide reduction targets under the 1997 Kyoto protocol. The impacts of military technologies on the world's climate are not an object of discussion or concern. Narrowly confined to greenhouse gases, the ongoing debate on climate change serves Washington's strategic and defense objectives.” 
On April 28, 2002, an “unusually wide and potent swath of thunderstorms plowed across the eastern half” of the U.S., killing at least six people, inflicting 93 others with minor to critical injuries; a tornado struck New York; heavy snow hit Wisconsin and Minnesota. By March 14, 2002, widespread droughts plagued most of the U.S.: Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, New Jersey, Massachusetts and Virginia saw the driest September to February ever. These droughts persist: in some areas the aggregate precipitation deficits “are comparable to missing a full year of rain.” The entire state of Wyoming was declared a drought disaster area. Montana is reverting to desert. The southern U.S. has seen an absence of frost in some areas.
The tundra and ice of Russia, Alaska, Canada and Greenland has begun to thaw, there are changes in species’ behaviors and migrations, and species even recently prolific are absent. To the horror of indigenous peoples, places where they have always known only icepack have become open sea. As we might predict from a world inclined to ignore or suppress evidence of climatic mayhem, “Explaining the quick thaw and determining its cause -- whether human or natural -- has so far eluded the experts.” 
The past existence of “doomsayers” and “alarmists” does not preclude the need for immediate action. Many of the so-called “alarmists” have been vindicated by evidence that their predictions greatly underestimated the imminent cataclysms. Little substantive change, in a positive sense, has occurred since the first warnings were issued decades ago, and public subsidies and public policies dictated by multinational corporations have accelerated our demise.
International agreements already being implemented, and climate-change protocols on the books, and treaties currently under debate, will not stop climatic mayhem. Climatic mayhem manifests globally and locally as severe weather events: ice storms, tornadoes, hurricanes, droughts, floods, heat waves and earthquakes.
Access to clean water and fresh air are basic human rights, and along with agriculture, energy, fisheries, and forestry in Massachusetts, access to these has been compromised by the inability and unwillingness of state and federal regulators, and the people at large, to deal with human-induced climate change. In combination with other major social and environmental factors, it is expected to increasingly cause: declining agricultural production; epidemics of disease; insect infestations; fisheries depletion; mass species extinctions; economic disasters; population displacements; homelessness; societal conflict and war. No one is immune, and, here again, it would behoove us all to recall that money cannot be eaten.
Our systems of economic accounting (e.g. GDP, GNP) count as profits all the coal and oil the world consumes, but fail to enter the resulting environmental and social damage on the global balance sheet. “A nation could exhaust its mineral reserves, cut down it’s forests, erode its soils, pollute its aquifers, and hunt its wildlife to extinction – all without affecting measured income.”
The science of climate change, as the oil and coal industry have spent millions to tell us, is far from clear. The nuclear industry peddles its poisons, on the other hand, promising us that they are “clean and safe” antidotes to greenhouse warming. The interests of the energy industries and the policies they have peddled at the state and federal levels reflect a business-as-usual attitude that is arrogant, indifferent and hostile to all life.
Through the mysterious teleconnections of the earth’s climate, the effects of distant climate behavior are seen in weather instabilities, severe storms and shifting precipitation patterns in Massachusetts. Cases of equine encephalitis, the worst winter drought in the history of the state (2001/2002), the decline in offshore fish stocks are all teleconnected to greater human-induced environmental instabilities. It is precisely the dearth of human scientific knowledge, given the already visible effects of climatic mayhem, which dictates that a revolution in human thought and action is imperative.
No more research, stalling or vested interests. We must face the dire consequences – no matter how innocent or unconscious or malicious are the causes – of human ignorance, technological arrogance, military adventurism and simple greed. We have reached a point where we can no longer be sure, with absolute certainty, that day will follow night and water will always flow downhill. (As any mathematician will tell you, such is the nature of non-linear processes, threshold effects and boundary value instabilities.)
Anyone who promises to mitigate the effects of global climatic mayhem is out-of-their mind. No one can. No persons, no scientists, no governments, no international climate change panels. Anyone who says so is lying. Coincidentally, the political economy of deceit is a billion dollar business (see Industry, Science & Propaganda section below).
We can begin, and try, to move us in the right direction, to ask the right questions, to implement alternative energy and conservation policies and technologies in an effort to help citizens adapt and survive amidst the increasing insecurity, ecological violence and social chaos that appears increasingly probable. However, given the abysmal record of the two party system to date, the situation is bleak.
The hour is very late.
On The Threshold:
Humanity is on the threshold. In biocentric, rather than anthropocentric, terms, life as we know it is on the threshold. The environmental system, in particular the earth’s climate, used to be regarded as relatively stable in the face of human insults. But now it is widely believed to have multiple local equilibria that are not highly stable. Human-induced environmental degradation – or scientific and military arrogance in tampering with nuclear devices, for example, or atmospheric systems -- may provoke nonlinear or threshold effects in the atmospheric and hydrological systems that could produce sudden shifts in the climate to a new – and potentially very undesirable – equilibrium. An oft-cited example is the potential to alter the direction of major ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream. An abrupt shift of deep ocean currents could cut off the northward flow of warm water in the Atlantic so that, within a decade, the climate of much of Europe could go into a deep freeze.
Imminent and far-reaching actions are essential, not to reverse the most severe ecological damage we have already done, but only to slow those effects and prevent greater catastrophe. Feedback mechanisms will continue to exert pressures on the environmental system long after we have ceased or modified our human actions. Nonlinear processes involve instabilities and forces of unpredictable magnitude, duration and frequency.
We are now facing multiple resource scarcities that exhibit powerful interactive, feedback and threshold effects. The multiple impacts of severe storms, agricultural decline, ozone depletion, pollution and human population have created an indeterminate and unpredictable mix. People are committed to patterns of resource consumption, the momentum is staggering, and even many of the people who are already aware of the need for alternative energies and lifestyles are reluctant, unable or unwilling to change.
Humankind will face multiple resource shortages that are interacting and unpredictable, that grow to crises proportions rapidly, and that will be hard to address because of powerful commitments to certain consumption patterns. Growing population, consumption and environmental factors will increase social friction. “The resulting economic decline may corrode confidence in national purpose, weaken the tax base, and undermine financial, legal and political institutions.” 
Perhaps the most devastating fact of the climatic mayhem is the evidence that it is the desired state of affairs, and that climatic mayhem may actually be desired and facilitated by the U.S. military, aerospace and defense establishment. For this discussion, see the lengthy related report, Weather Warfare: The Invisible U.S. Military Offensives in Weather Weaponry.
Another sort of ecologically destructive synergism exists between the increasing resistance of disease causing organisms to vaccines and treatments, and the spread of disease-bearing insects that is already happening. Similarly, as environmental instabilities increasingly debilitate populations in developing regions -- spawning further epidemics of disease -- refugees, migrants and immigrants will increasingly spread infectious agents as they flood areas in search of basic human needs.
Emissions of low-level air pollutants, in the short term, mask the warming of the upper atmosphere. Thus the same fossil fuel emissions that contribute to global warming by emitting carbon dioxide simultaneously mask that warming by emitting sulfate particles as well. The “sulfate mask” causes serious and persistent public and environmental health threats, including low-level air pollution, lung diseases, crop destruction and acid rain.
The effects of the increased incidence of ultraviolet radiation due to the depletion of the ozone layer are little understood. Increased ultraviolet radiation caused by ozone depletion is expected to increase the frequency and lethality of human and livestock diseases. Skin cancers, already in epidemic proportions in the United States, will most likely continue to increase as the spectrum and wavelengths of ultraviolet radiation vary with changes in the atmosphere.
One possible group of effects of radiation changes might be the alteration of species’ circadian rhythms and biological clocks. Humans, for example, vary in their capacity to remain healthy under seasonal variations and altered light conditions. The primary clock – the superchiasmatic nucleus -- in the mammalian brain is entrained by light hitting the retina of the eyes: the scientific understanding of the biological processes involved, and the many subtle molecular, neurologic and physiologic relationships, are absent. Thus one group of effects of climatic mayhem might be increased stress, sleep disorders, depression, leading to a vicious spiral between social strife, economic inefficiency, sickness and rising health costs.
Perhaps the greatest health threat due to climatic mayhem and global warming is the increasing spread of infectious diseases – like dengue fever, malaria, cholera and tuberculosis – in both the developing and industrialized regions of the earth. Already, chronic diseases are responsible for 70 percent of the deaths in the United States, about $600 billion a year in public health expenditures. Malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever and encephalitis have already penetrated the continental United States, southern Europe and Australia.
The hantavirus pulmonary syndrome reached epidemic proportions in the southwest U.S. in May of 1993. This highly fatal disease appeared as a previously unrecognized hantavirus that was causing a disease totally unlike that caused by hantaviruses in other parts of the world.
Public health institutions and infrastructure will be increasingly challenged as environmental systems are impacted by diseases, as for example, those spread by flood-affected sewage systems or the explosive growth of algae blooms in public water supplies. Milwaukee recently saw a major epidemic of diarrhea after a parasite called cryptosporidium caused 400,000 cases in one week. According to leading public health officials, “we will not often be able to predict what diseases will occur or where they will occur and when.” 
Changing ecological conditions will favor the spread of certain insects, as with deer, where more favorable ecological conditions for these hosts are thought to be the primary reason in the emergence of Lyme disease and related epidemics in the 20th century.
Worldwide, tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death from any infectious agent, and it was estimated that more than 90 million people would suffer TB diseases and over 30 million would die globally in the 1990’s. Tuberculosis has re-emerged as a major threat to the health of U.S. citizen’s: multi-drug resistant strains of tuberculosis are in major epidemic in the United States today and it was estimated that the direct costs of caring for TB patients in New York City alone would exceed some $1 billion during the mid-1990’s TB epidemic. Meanwhile, resources to prevent and control these epidemics have been absent. “Worsening poverty, crowding, homelessness, and increasing incarceration, the emergence of the HIV epidemic, and the continued influx of immigrants from high prevalence countries all combined to fuel the dramatic resurgence of TB in the United States.” 
So-called “sexy” tropical viruses like ebola have gained prominent public attention through major media propaganda fronts – the media serving the purpose of scaring the public and helping to further destabilize underdeveloped nations like Zaire (Congo). The prolific articles about ebola in 1995 served to drum up public support for narrow health care initiatives and exclusive private western interests. At the same time, and unreported, were the dengue fever epidemics: dengue provides a pertinent example of what can be expected as further climatic mayhem ensues.
In contrast to the 1995 ebola epidemic that killed 244 of 315 victims, in Kikwit Zaire, early in 1995, the dengue fever epidemics that exploded in the Americas and the Caribbean in 1995 affected millions. In its most lethal forms, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) can kill quickly, even with immediate professional and knowledgeable medical care. The multiple strain dengue viruses are spread by mosquitoes, and like the malaria and yellow fever mosquitoes, these vectors of tropical disease are increasingly found in more temperate – but warming -- climates. Dengue has appeared as far north as New York, and cases in the border zones of the southwest are increasingly prevalent. 
Although this report will not address biological weapons, it is prudent to note that it is no accident perhaps that the U.S. military has a monopoly on dengue fever vaccines, and that the U.S. military denies their existence. While the emergence of devastating viruses is very real and increasingly obvious, the prolific media and government propaganda that has attended them has been used to further proscribe legitimate public health programs, serving the interests of multinational corporations. At the same time, the fear of emerging viruses in underdeveloped (de-developed) countries has promoted a range of devastating government initiatives further debilitating – or abandoning at the very least – already disenfranchised Third World populations.
Climate & Biological Diversity:
It does not merely come down to mass species extinction, although that is something it behooves us to consider. Biodiversity will continue to slip away as tough, opportunistic species conquer and adapt to fluctuating local climates and ecological stresses in temperature or hydrology. Species and populations adapted to fragile ecosystems will disappear and species migrations have already begun to occur. Rifts in the food chain will prevail as species seek to mitigate the effects of climate change by inhabiting different ecological niches, making them absent to other species as food.
“We are into the opening phase of a mass extinction of species,” writes conservation expert Dr. Norman Myers. “That much is well understood. Hardly understood at all is what the mass extinction will do to the future course of evolution. But we are surely disrupting and impoverishing it in ways that promise to match the greatest setback to life’s course during the past half billion years -- and we are doing it in half a century. So while we are inducing an extinction spasm that threatens, if unchecked, to eliminate half or more of all species, we might consider the full scope of the biological debacle ahead.” 
Antarctica’s peninsula’s average temperatures have increased by 5 degrees Fahrenheit in the last half-century. The tundra’s permafrost has begun to melt, and the CO2 previously stored in the frozen ecology is now contributing to CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere. Scientists have recorded accelerated rates of glacial retreat. Ice and glaciers in Alaska are rapidly melting.
On March 19, 2002, the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) reported that satellite imagery revealed, “that the northern section of the Larsen B ice shelf has completely shattered and separated from the continent.” A huge crack in the Antarctic ice block was reported in 2001. Two ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula known as the Larsen B and Wilkins were already in “full retreat” and lost nearly 3,000 square kilometers of their total area in one year.
Significant depletion of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica began prior to the 1970’s but it was not recognized until the 1980’s because ozone-measuring satellites had been programmed to discard anomalous results. The ozone hole reached record sizes in 1989, 2000 and 2001. NASA reported the ozone hole in 2000 to measure 28.3 million square kilometers (11 million square miles) or about three times the size of the United States. While there is some hope that the ozone holes will heal due to previous controls on chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions, scientists see the ozone layer itself thinning.
While some effects are reasonably assured, others are mere speculation, and nothing we say or do can account for what we do not yet know. We can, however, expect meteorological extremity of all sorts due to the accumulation of heat energy, as infrared radiation is captured -- “radiative forcing” – in the upper atmosphere. To our certain detriment, humanity is altering the balance of solar energy received and re-radiated. Nor do we understand the heat exchange of deep-ocean currents, their flow between latitudes, or their influence on climate.
Thermodynamics dictates all too clearly the effects of heating and cooling on the interiors and surfaces of fluids and dense bodies, and these effects can appear in the off-gassing of volcanoes. We are emptying vast geological basins of oil and gas, altering the volumes and pressures of subsurface basins and tectonic plates, and these actions can help trigger earthquakes. (Explorations into the potential to intentionally trigger a controlled earthquake suggest that the military might be developing earthquake capabilities as a weapon.  )
Changes in the types and altitudes of clouds have occurred in response to changes in the gaseous content of the atmosphere as forest cover has been lost, as fossil fuels have emitted nitrous oxides (NOx) sulfur oxides (SOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Variations in cloud cover lead to variations in the spectrum and wavelengths of radiation reaching the earth’s surface, and this alters the carbon cycle, and in turn again feeds back to alter the formation and density of clouds.
One of biggest “surprises” of climate change was the discovery that concentrations of atmospheric water vapor – 30 times the concentrations of CO2 – are also trapping heat in the atmosphere. The feedback mechanisms between water vapor, temperature, solar energy and the carbon cycle are profoundly unappreciated and grossly misunderstood. “Even the slight warming caused by the CO2 buildup leads to more evaporation of ocean waters, which in turn causes a disproportionate increase in the amount of heat-trapping water vapor in the atmosphere.” 
Protracted droughts can lead to lethal leaf temperatures and high rates of evapotranspiration detrimental to plants and trees. Persistent drought conditions have prompted the repeated forest fire reburns and overburns which have devastated boreal forests in North America. Plants become more stressed, more susceptible to increasing insect and fungal infestations -- even a slight change in temperature can alter reproductive cycles of insect, reptile and amphibian populations -- and this in turn disrupts and alters the cycles and inhabitants of ecosystems. The subsequent release of carbon from dying and burning forests reinforces the greenhouse effect.
The signature of the recent climatic record is unlike natural variability. Thus the forests in North America have in the past three decades progressed from net carbon absorbers to net methane (carbon) emitters. Similarly, during the mid-20th century, thousands of boreal lakes in eastern Canada were acidified by deposition of strong acids, causing biotic impoverishment. While some lakes recovered, others continued to acidify, and still others have recovered less than predicted. After detailed study, scientists have concluded that climate warming interacts with the acid rain problem to amplify the negative effects.
Agriculture, Fisheries & Food:
Desertification is a global phenomenon. Large tracts of agricultural land are being lost annually to salinization, erosion, nutrient depletion, waterlogging, acidification and compacting. Erosion is removing between 10 and 120 tons per acre of topsoil each year around the world. The “Green Revolution” pressed by agribusiness and chemical fertilizer companies has enhanced soil erosion, polluted groundwater and surface water resources, and increased pesticide use has caused serious public health and environmental problems.
Urbanization and pollution are further claiming a significant percentage of the world’s arable land. Crops in the grain and corn belts of the U.S. are susceptible to soil degradation caused by repeated drought and rapid temperature fluctuations, which is exactly what is happening, and combined with severe windstorms this could lead to the desertification of Kansas. Indeed, vast swaths of Montana are already reverting to desert.
Failing agriculture leads to increasing urbanization, and it is clear that international financial and economic policies have undermined, eroded or destroyed the agricultural independence of nation-states. Many nations defined as “developing” nations are already suffering series famines, food shortages and agricultural collapse. Entire national economies have been reorganized to suit the profit imperatives of western capital. Further, while some international security academics suggest that this is a future possibility, it is becoming increasingly clear that industrial nations and multinational corporations have already used food as a weapon.
Increased CO2 in the atmosphere will force more rapid plant respiration in some ecozones, which combined with higher temperatures, will lead to stunted growth and lower crop yields, thus accelerating rates of malnutrition, disease and starvation. Malnutrition, illness, starvation and crime are all socially destabilizing consequences of food shortages.
The trend toward instituting agricultural dependence can be seen in Massachusetts, where some of the most significant and fertile croplands – a.k.a. the Connecticut River Valley -- have been lost to industry, strip malls, housing subdivisions, landfills and to the expansion of elite educational institutions now supplying the raw intellectual material and research for the military-industrial complex. Farmers cannot compete in a marketplace hostile to small scale, independent producers. Profits are tenuous at best, and the added pressures of crop and livestock losses due to an unstable climate relentlessly erode a farmer’s capacity to survive.
Rising temperatures in surface waters, and fluctuations or changes in the properties of solar radiation affect zooplankton: declining populations of zooplankton are already being seen. These are the food sources for larger species of fish, and thus we have another very real kink in the food chain. Rising water temperature also degrades surface water phosphates and nitrates that plant plankton subsist on, and zooplankton feed on plant plankton. Climatic warming is credited with the collapse of the commercial anchovy fishing industry in the Pacific.
The radical changes taking place in the Antarctic seas due to ice melting and displacement have dramatically affected the growth of minute plant life. NASA scientists believe that icebergs newly calved from the Ross Ice Shelf caused a 40% reduction in the 2000-2001 plankton bloom in one of Antarctica’s most biologically productive areas, greatly impacting the food chain by decreasing the surface area needed by the plankton for reproduction. The phytoplankton of the Ross Sea supports marine mammals and birds, and it is home to 22 % of the world population of Emperor penguins and 30 % of Adelie’ penguins.
Benthic resources – like seagrass meadows and coral reefs -- residing in the bottoms of water bodies in near-shore estuarine and marine habitats will suffer dramatic changes due to temperature variations, turbidity, illumination and nutrient content. The species, and hence food chains, which inhabit these zones will be forced to change in rapid and generally detrimental ways. Any increase in ambient ultraviolet radiation could result in further depletion of fish stocks – a major supply of food to humans. Currently, fish accounts for 18 % of world food intake (40 % in Asia).
Declining fish stocks have been reported widely around the world due to industry trawling, petroleum operations, deep water mining, toxic waste dumping, runoff and siltation of aquatic and estuarine ecosystems. Nuclear submarines poop nuclear waste, and a substantial quantity of nuclear waste has been dumped in the oceans and seas. Climatic mayhem will further decimate populations, especially the more sensitive species. Studies of crabs, sea birds, anemones, snails and starfish have already confirmed this. Walrus, whale, polar bear, caribou, reindeer, seabird – and indigenous human -- populations in the Arctic are in serious trouble.
Sea surface temperatures impact trophospheric humidity. The effects of the warming El Nino currents are teleconnected to violent storms over the world. Thus we are also seeing a general increase in the disturbances to the sea surface, manifesting in larger waves. Climatic mayhem will almost certainly facilitate more rising sea levels, rougher seas, and more frequent and devastating tidal waves.
Deforestation is proceeding virtually unchecked around the world and the loss of forests has multiple serious and negative repercussions.
First, the earth’s forests provide huge buffers and temperature reservoirs as basins to moderate heat exchange. The absence of forest cover dictates greater fluctuations in temperature, as it is in any desert, and this affects global and local climate. The loss of carbon absorbing forests as sinks has a negative feedback effect: as the forests disappear, the carbon in the atmosphere due to human processes and natural decay increases. Ecologies are in turn further disrupted by carbon dioxide-enhanced growth, degrading the nutritional content of plants and trees essential to wildlife.
Logging in the continental United States, Alaska and Canada continues to degrade landscapes, wipe out biodiversity and pollute water supplies. The social conflict due to logging has pitted environmentalists against loggers, but the entire earth suffers under the ecological and democratic hostility pursued by the multinational corporations involved. Economic compensation and training to rehabilitate displaced loggers is not insured by a society ruled by corporations interested only in maximizing short-term financial gain. Logging personnel maimed on the job are rarely equitably compensated for their physical and emotional suffering.
No matter the negative impact of tropical and temperate deforestation, the consumption machine continues to grind up these resources with little public awareness. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, for example, in 2000, instituted new plans to clear-cut vast segments of Ontario’s intact boreal forests in patches up to 10,000 square hectares. Similarly, the powerful Fisher family (Gap, Inc.) and their logging company, Mendocino Redwood, have continued their clear-cut assaults on dwindling California old-growth forests out of the public eye.
Deforestation has altered hydrological cycles and precipitation patterns; accelerated erosion and altered the water retention capacity of lands. These in turn have caused flash floods, siltation, pollution of drinking water supplies, and decreased irrigation capacity. Siltation reduces the hydroelectric capacity of rivers, kills fish and through stagnation alters the balance of nutrient production and cycling. The latter in turn stimulates organic growth that can further stagnate fresh water supplies.
Studies suggest that forest ecosystems in the eastern United States will be hard hit by climate disruption. Climatic mayhem and the resulting environmental degradation will have direct effects on the regional forestry and cottage industries in Massachusetts. Cordwood production offers a major source of fuel for homeowners, for maple syrup producers, and small-scale tourism, and the economic effects of declining timber availability would be substantial.
Local folklore is invoked to repudiate and dismiss the effects of deforestation and over-logging in Massachusetts, as more regionally. The standard refrain is that “this whole damned state was cow pastures at the turn of the century!” The further justification for assaults on the forest comes in “forest management plans” designed to rationalize “selective” felling for incomes, single-family housing, or other small-scale human encroachment. Selective cutting is also used in the State managed lands, such as Quabbin Reservoir, the watershed that provides drinking water for Boston. (Indeed, the extent of the inversion of values is revealed in the Quabbin regulations allowing motorized -- petroleum-based -- watercraft for fishing, but denying swimming or canoeing or sailing.)
In 2002, the remaining but dwindling Massachusetts forests are essential as regulators against air pollution, sources of forest products, recreation, nature study, and they have inherent worth beyond human measure. But the time between timber harvests, and therefore the bole size of trees harvested, continues to be reduced. Forest practices continue to degrade the environment. Only pockets of virgin forest remain, and many of these do so under the most tenuous circumstances under threat of commercial development. Old and “dying” trees are important sources of nutrients, and are utilized by forest excavators and insects, but these trees are systematically culled under many forest “management” plans.
Sugar maples may be particularly vulnerable to decimation by a combination of rapid warming and drying of the climate, acid rain, regional pollution, insect infestations and the structure of the trees themselves. Recent infestations include the Asian long-horned beetle and the gypsy moth. Sugar producers economically driven to maximize production further stress the already over-stressed trees by boring and tapping the sap – the life-blood of a sugar maple – as they emerge from winter sleep into spring budding and bloom.
The rapid decline and fall of timber in equatorial Africa and the Congo River basin may be the final assault that trips the climate trigger. These oil protectorates of powerful American and European individuals use dictatorship as a means to ensure that multinational corporations can extract and liquidate both replenishable and non-replenishable resources with impunity. American, Canadian and European officials are involved at the highest levels.
The forests of Kamchatka and Siberia are equally important, equally under assault from western and Japanese multinationals. The corporate media is equally complicit in its non-reporting on the western corporate devastation in the independent Russian Republics, in Siberia, and in western China. The ongoing devastation of the tropical rainforests of Latin America is best conceptualized through the powerful expose’ on the Rockefellers, and their petroleum, cattle, mining and logging interests, in They Will Be Done.
The ecological and democratic hostility -- and the concomitant human rights atrocities and war -- occurs under a complete media whiteout. At the unprecedented current rate of ecological devastation and forest loss in the central African region, we can expect to see a very near term and local (New England) ratcheting-up of severe and hostile weather events.
Madness, Propaganda and Doom:
There has been a concerted corporate and government effort to downplay the realities of serious human-induced climatic instabilities and the ecological devastation which spawns this. As the issues of climate change came to greater public attention over the past decade, the industries whose profits were threatened began to devote increasing resources to institutes and think-tanks, government lobbying and legislation, academic programs and “experts,” to huge campaigns of disinformation in schools, public forums, books, videos, on the internet and in the press.
It is easy to dismiss this as the nature of capital, protecting profits and entrenched industries like oil, coal and nuclear. However, there is something much deeper at issue: the intentional, secret, military programs in the development of weather warfare capabilities. There is also the possible greater agenda of intentionally facilitating radical climate instabilities.
When the Washington Post in 1989 reported on the 1989 Tokyo conference on global environment, they quoted World Bank president Barber Conable to say, "while higher temperatures may cause ‘a number of natural disasters,’ they might also warm cold and unproductive lands in the north into productivity."  As we will see (in Weather Warfare), this is not an isolated and inconsequential statement.
Nonetheless, coal and oil industries have spent hundreds of millions of dollars – that might otherwise have been put to productive use -- to downplay the threat of climate change and greenwash their own operations. They created the Information Council on the Environment, The Global Climate Coalition (GCC), World Climate Review Magazine, World Climate Report, and The Heated Debate. The skeptics’ video “The Greening of Planet Earth” was designed to persuade policymakers that a warmer, wetter, carbon dioxide-enhanced world would be, contrary to the alarms of environmentalists, a godsend. In 1993 alone, the American Petroleum Institute, just one of 54 industry members of the GCC, paid $1.8 million to the public relations firm Burson-Marstellar to greenwash the public mindscape.
Burson-Marstellar is in the business of perception management – the preferred public relations terminology for propaganda. Through Burson-Marstellar director Edward N. Neys, BM works closely with Barrick Gold, a Canadian-based corporation which counts Edward N. Neys, George Bush Sr., former U.S. Senator Howard Baker, former Clintonite lawyer Vernon E. Jordan, and former Prime Minister of Canada Brain Mulroney on its boards of directors and advisers. Gold mining is significant source of terrestrial pollutants – cyanide heap leaching -- in its own right.
It is no accident that Barrick Gold’s devastating mining operations, with military support at the highest levels, remain off the media agenda. Brian Mulroney is a key player behind Forbes Magazine, and he is a trustee for the right-wing Freedom Forum media think-tank (publisher of the academic Media Studies Journal), and with the likes of Henry Kissinger and David Rockefeller, he sits on the Advisory Council for Chase Manhattan Corporation.
As another example of media complicity in masking, underreporting and disinforming the public on issues of human-induced environmental damage, consider the case of deforestation. The loss of global forests is virtually invisible to the news consuming public, primarily because the media corporations have a financial stake in the timber industry, and their directors have shared directorships or close affiliations with timber companies.
The New York Times, for example, rarely reports on the human and environmental devastation caused by the timber industry. To feed their pulp and paper consumption the New York Times Corporation – publishers of the Washington Post, Newsweek, International Herald Tribune, New York Times, eighteen regional daily papers, three regional non-dailies, at least eighteen other major magazines, and numerous irregular print publications – owns and operates newsprint, pulp and paper mills in Quebec and Maine, and relies on forest products from numerous other logging concerns for their phenomenal newsprint needs.
The case of the indigenous Penan territories in Sarawak, Malaysia, offers one testament to the media exclusion that feeds the subsequent public ignorance of the scale and rate of forest and ecosystem loss. The Penan territories have been under logging assault since the 1970’s, the destruction of forests and nomadic Penan homelands was accelerated in the late 1980’s, and in the 1990’s the destructive felling continued unabated. Efforts to slow or stop destruction of Penan territories and virgin forests led to state-sponsored (Malaysia) terrorism against the Penan. Burson-Marsellar has provided cover for repressive government activities by Malaysia, Hong Kong, Thailand and Indonesia. One of the most powerful elites behind the destruction of the rainforests of Southeast Asia is Malaysian timber magnate Bob Hasan, also partnered with FreePort McMoran, a North American company.
The timber operations of North American companies are equally obscured and devastating. In Canada the transnational corporations McMillan Bloedel and Fletcher Challenge have between them sued over a hundred individuals and four community and environmental organizations that opposed the logging of an ancient rainforest on Vancouver Island. The British Columbia Council of Forest Industries ran an essay contest for high school students on “Why Clear-Cut Logging is Beneficial for British Columbia.” U.S. Senate Bill S 1608 was designed to provide additional funding for American schools by increasing logging on national forests. Dubbed the “clearcuts for kids” legislation by opponents, it seeks to justify the logging of national forests, using children as pawns in economic and ecological warfare.
The directors of Weyerhauser are also directors of major petroleum, nuclear, chemical and cattle ranching enterprises. Director George H. Weyerhauser is a director of aerospace and defense giant Boeing Corporation, and of Chevron Oil. Director William D. Ruckelshaus was administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Ronald Reagan administration. He is also a director of defense contractors Cummings Engine and Nordstrom, and of Monsanto, a major sponsor of genetically engineered monoculture plantations.
In 1988, public relations hacks Ron Arnold and Alan Gottlieb joined forces with corporations -- including Weyerhauser, McMillan Bloedel and Exxon -- and industry trade groups – including the American Mining Congress, the National Rifle Association and the National Cattlemen’s Association – to counter the rising tide of environmentalism. Thus was born the Wise Use Movement, a nebulous front movement catapulted to center stage in America with complete media support.
Alan Gottlieb founded the Center for the Defense of Free Enterpirse (CDFE) in 1976. (Ron Arnold at some point became Executive Vice-President.) CDFE’s success was guaranteed through frequent and sympathetic “news” articles: more than 600 radio stations support and regularly broadcast programs on free enterprise produced by CDFE; more than 400 newspapers nationwide participate in the CDFE American Press Syndicate by publishing regular CDFE productions. In the mid 1990’s, the CDFE counted nine U.S. senators and nine U.S. representatives as its Congressional advisers. Also on the board as was the Honorable Dick Cheney, then U.S. Secretary of Defense, U.S. Vice-President under George W. Bush.
The International Climate Change Partnership (ICCP) -- comprised of large multinational corporations -- emerged in the mid-1990’s to position itself to take a leadership role in the climate issues and business opportunities. The ICCP asserts that corporations, not governments, must design and lead the global energy transition. That, by the way, is business as usual, because that is exactly what they have done.
Meanwhile the World Bank and International Monetary Fund continue to underwrite new projects based on devastating fossil fuel (and nuclear) technologies, and their reports describe these plans in bold and euphemistic language that exposes the extent of their mental illness. Ditto for the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) and the Export-Import Bank of the United States, both highly subsidized by American taxpayers. Indeed, OPIC “has a comprehensive insurance program to encourage petroleum exploration, development and production in developing countries.” With a multibillion-dollar annual portfolio, the Ex-Im Bank in 1996 was most heavily concentrated in nuclear, mining and fossil fuels, and fossil fuels-based manufacturing and transportation, sectors.
As it is with the assessments of the United States intelligence community, these people are stark raving mad. They have not the slightest intentions of exercising restraint or conservation in the face of mounting evidence of climatic mayhem and social and environmental chaos. When they do address potential chaos, it is always with the assumption – indeed the regretful acknowledgement – that poor and “developing” countries will be first and hardest hit, that it is unavoidable, but regretful, and that the rich and “advanced” societies, most likely, will only be marginally effected, if at all.
Contrary to the popular notion that petroleum reserves are diminishing, and very limited, is the evidence that major petroleum resources have yet begun to be exploited. Indeed, the CIA intelligence document, Global Trends 2015: A Dialog About the Future With Nongovernment Experts, confirms the double jeopardy intentions of current leadership: not only will fossil fuels use be expanded to new markets in leaps and bounds, for great economic prosperity (supposed for the American people) but there is far more oil and gas available than people think. CIA Assistant Director John Gannon has said: “The latest estimates from outside sources tell us 80 percent of the world's available oil, and 95 percent of its gas, remain underground, so we are not going to run out in the next fifteen years.”
Indeed, the report reads not so much as prediction, but as promise:
“Despite a 50% increase in global energy demand, energy resources will be sufficient to meet demand; the latest estimates suggest that 80% of the world’s available oil and 95 % of its gas remain underground.” 
“Sustained economic growth, along with population increases, will drive a nearly 50% increase in the demand for energy over the next 15 years. Total oil demand will increase from roughly 75 million barrels per day in 2000 to more that 100 million barrels per day in 2015, an increase almost as large as OPEC’s current production.” 
“Fossil Fuels will remain the dominant form of energy, despite increasing concerns about global warming… Asia’s energy needs will be met either through coal from the region or from oil and gas supplies from the Persian Gulf.” 
“With increasingly intensive land use, significant degradation of arable land will continue as well as the loss of tropical forests. Given the promising global economic out look, greenhouse gas emissions will increase substantially. The depletion of tropical forests and other species rich habitats, such as wetlands and coral reefs, will exacerbate the historically large losses of biological species now occurring.” 
“Developed countries will continue to manage these local environmental issues, and such issues are unlikely to constitute a major constraint on our economic growth or on improving health standards.” 
The economy will prosper. There is plenty of oil and gas. We will lose rainforests, cropland, biological diversity, species, wetlands and coral reefs. But Americans will be healthier and richer than ever before. And so goes the mental illness.
The excerpts above attest to the intentions of the capitalist powers, the multinational corporations and the people they have positioned throughout government and its agencies to insure that the oil, gas, nuclear and military interests are served. The Central Intelligence Agency reports from a perspective of certainty, reflecting their insider knowledge about the thinking and intention of the people in control of the military-industrial / national security complex.
More insidious however, is the certainly that this classified report – cleared for public release – is specifically intended to proliferate, with media support, and infect the public mind. Reporting on this document by Nightline, BBC and ABC News have further focused public attention on the scenarios predicted by the CIA, by reporting on the release of this report, and creating a public debate about the issues in the report. Why has this unclassified report garnered so much attention?
Global Trends 2015 is a propaganda document released to help lay the groundwork for public acquiescence and apathy about major, catastrophic environmental disruption, and huge loss of life. Creating apathy and indifference in the rich countries, while meanwhile sewing devastation in the poor countries, is one means of solving the “populations crisis” this and other reports focus on. (The population crisis is in the North: that is where we find the primary drivers for the consumption and devastation of the world’s natural resources.)
This disruption will hit developing countries first, as predicted in the report. Indeed, the effects are already devastating entire geographical regions and nation-states around the world. Overpopulation, disease, refugee flows, war – all can be causally linked to western corporate and institutional pressures (World Bank, IMF, OPIC) and current U.S. governmental realities in both underdeveloped and overdeveloped nations.
Global Trends 2015 seeks to establish in the public mind the complacency that will enable policy makers and leaders to step away from these horror zones, even while western multinational corporations continue to pillage their raw materials, drain their institutions, and dump substandard western products and industrial waste.
Behind the shield of public apathy and fear in the rich countries, the western military-industrial complex will continue – as is happening today -- to overtly and covertly destabilize underdeveloped regions around the world. This will occur through economic and military instruments. It will occur behind the rubric of plausible deniability. Destabilization operations will occur with increasing success as the thresholds of violence, disease and environmental disruption provide sufficient “background” cover.
Jobs, Incomes, and the Economy:
To transition from the preceding analysis into a discussion about economic impacts in Massachusetts, for example, is obscene. However much people in the United States and Canada consider themselves to be sufficiently divorced from the seas of human misery, their future lies in helping – not abandoning – the developing world. To drive this home we now address the financial and economic costs, in Massachusetts and the U.S., of the current course we are on.
Study after study – not funded by the oil and coal industry – has shown that every dollar spent on conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energies creates far more jobs than the equivalent amounts spent on fossil fuels.
The National Climatic Data Center reports that “the U.S. has sustained 52 weather-related disasters over the past 22 years in which overall damages and costs reached or exceeded $1 billion. 43 of these disasters occurred during the 1988-2001 period with total damages/costs exceeding $185 billion. Seven occurred during 1998 alone--the most for any year on record, though other years have recorded higher damage totals.”
Nonetheless, popular publications like World Climate Report continue to debunk basic and obvious realities with the most circuitous Orwellian and Kafkaesque arguments. At the same time, when a news article of some substance is printed, publications like these blame the media – which they have so successfully courted and influenced -- for publishing articles intent on scaring and deceiving the public.
For example, the Greening Earth Society’s World Climate Report says:
“Vocal advocates of acting now to head off the possibility of global warming, having failed to make the case that climate change would cause noticeable economic costs, are attempting to scare the public through allegations that a warmer climate would bring death and disease.” 
This is certain: the current course our leadership has assumed is tantamount to doom. Indeed, that is scary. We are, in many ways, doomed to suffer that which we have allowed or created or silently accepted. We should be scared. Unless revolutionary changes are instituted at the most basic levels, immediately, the world will increasingly suffer unprecedented cataclysms, resulting in widespread human, plant and animal suffering and death. The United States – even its richest and most powerful citizens -- is not immune.
We can now consider the economic costs of the course we are on. To the glee of the flat earth climate skeptics, and the public deceptions industry, and the corporations behind them, numerous accountings of the economic costs have been studiously dismissed, denied and buried.
Mechanized forestry combined with resource depletion continues to eliminate human labor even as corporate public relations trumpet (mythical) job creation, as they log and destroy pristine areas. Meanwhile the logging industry blames job losses on environmentalists and conservation programs. In British Columbia it is estimated that in the period from 1981-1992 only 500 of the 24,000 direct forest industry job losses were due to wilderness preservation (In BC, more people work in tourism than in forestry).
The travel and tourism industry will suffer enormous losses as the specter of acute violence, refugee flows, epidemics, and widespread suffering outside the country reaches the awareness of the public and, in turn, drives protectionism, xenophobia and isolation at home. International and domestic tourism will be hard hit as the effects of severe weather conjoin with population, pollution, social strife and resource depletion to eat away at national forests and monuments, wildlife refuges, conservation areas, beaches and marine parks.
External groups marginalized by the inequalities of globalization, and some privileged groups of richer countries, will increasingly retaliate against American interests: most vulnerable will be international tourists, backpackers and traveling business people. Notes the Air Force, “And, some form of confrontation between the over-thirty rich and the poor but angry global teenager seems likely.
Crime within developed countries will increases as employment shrinks and people of all classes increasingly resort to illegal activities in anger, retaliation and desperation. Crime will be random, committed by individuals, and it will be organized, committed by gangs hardened across ethnic, religious and class cleavages. This will further justify an authoritarian state response, at taxpayer’s expense.
Domestic violence, rape, alcohol, racial and religious scape-goating, and racial profiling will increase and further contribute to violent crime. (Such social costs, not easily calculated, are very significant). Security firms, security equipment and professional thugs will proliferate, at high costs, becoming increasingly unaffordable to the average citizen. Nonetheless, insurance firms will mandate high investments in security equipment for homeowners and businesses.
Health care costs will increase substantially. Drugs will become less effective, more expensive, and, as the social fabric unravels in parallel with greater authoritarian control, and the controls on corporations and oversights on medical regulations are compromised, we can predict a greater propensity for drugs to simultaneously deliver adverse side-effects and unforeseen risks. (This is already happening, and it is called risk-assessment, and it is the calculated statistical expectation of a certain level of mortality.)
Disease will hamper economic productivity. Manufacturing, energy, defense , travel and service industries will suffer as production, human efficiency and attendance are increasingly impacted by mental or physical illness, or the imperatives of mitigating sudden threats or losses to private property. Corporations will exploit these conditions, optimizing productivity and costs by choosing from increasingly desperate pools of labor. This is already happening.
As the economies of the greater world continue to decline and collapse – which has already happened -- or transition into permanent states of war -- as some have already done – the emerging markets and the banking systems propped up and manipulated by western capital will further decline and collapse. This will exert tremendous downward pressure on centers of trade, finance and manufacturing in the North.
Disruptions in fresh water systems will continue to degrade and impact human health. Public water and sewage systems’ maintenance and operations costs will sap budgets, and we can expect greater social strife as clean water scarcity drives private sector resource capture – leading to monopolies and controls on purification, distribution, accessibility and costs.
Environmental and health disasters will exhaust relief budgets. Taxpayers pay for disaster assistance by the government, and all policyholders pay for insurance losses through higher insurance premiums. Sever storms cause death, homelessness, property damage and psychological damage to victims.
The insurance industry will both capitalize and capitulate on their responsibilities and opportunities in the highly volatile environment characterized by unpredictable weather, severe storms, disasters, and the related losses to life and property. Auditing firms like Arthur Andersen, Price Waterhouse and Coopers & Lybrand will continue to manipulate the financial records, deferring losses and hiding costs, to maximize the profits of insurance (and other) corporations at the public expense. Insurance companies have already imposed caps on how much insurance they will write in certain areas.
Absent a vibrant state and national government – with individuals accountable to the public trust --- corporations will for some time continue to secure government (taxpayer) subsidies and bailouts, to defer the substantial losses (direct and indirect) related to environmental disruption. Shareholders -- for the most part – will continue to be defrauded even as directors pocket tens of millions of dollars annually in basic salaries, stocks, bonds, insurance benefits and special bonuses. Investment funds, pensions plans, social securities and other financial safety nets will increasingly defraud long-term investors and retirees: for the average middle- and lower-class citizen, most will fail or disappear without warning.
The many social, financial and economic ills that will beset U.S. citizens as environmental disruption proceeds and accelerates will stress and paralyze the legal system. The cases of India and Nigeria provide perfect examples of what can be expected here. State and federal legal institutions will become increasingly costly and unmanageable, as more and more citizens pursue legitimate grievances within the courts. Many citizens will remain marginalized, incapable of defraying the most basic legal costs. The further saturation of the legal field with the recently graduated law students will further bog down an already paralyzed system. Prisons will proliferate, at further taxpayer expense. Special military courts and tribunals will convene and extrajudicially override legitimate legal institutions.
Finally, we have the specter of authoritarianism. Given the social consequences of environmental disruption, in tandem with increasing urbanization, rising population, and declining standards of living, one can easily support the conclusion that there will be significant increases in the size and intrusiveness of federal internal and external security forces, and the promulgation of war.
 Michel Chossudovsky, Washington's New World Order Weapons Have The Ability To Trigger Climate Change, November 26, 2000 < http://emperors-clothes.com/articles/chuss/haarp2.htm >. Chossudovsky is Professor of Economics, University of Ottawa, and author of The Globalization of Poverty, Common Courage Press, 2000.
 Stephen Manning, “Severe Storms Kill Six in Midwest, East,” Associated Press, April 29, 2002.
 NOAA Magazine at NOAA web site, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, March 14, 2002.
 New York Times, May 3, 2002: p. 1.
 Ross Gelbspan, The Heat Is On: The High Stakes Battle Over the Earth’s Threatened Climate, Addison-Wesley, 1997: p. 15.
 Usha Lee McFarling, “The Arctic Meltdown: Quick Thaw Alarms Natives and Scientists,” Seattle Times, April 15, 2002.
 In Perverse Subsidies, Dr. Norman Myers and Jennifer Kent estimate that the average American taxpayer shells out at least $2,500 a year to fund government support for destructive projects in fossil fuels, road transportation, agriculture, water and fisheries. Then the same taxpayer turns around and spends another $2,500 to fix the environmental problems those payments produce and to pay higher prices for consumer products. See Myers and Kent, Perverse Subsidies: How Misused Tax Dollars Harm the Environment and the Economy, Island Press, 2001. See also Ray Reece, The Sun Betrayed: A report on the Corporate Seizure of U.S. Solar Energy Development, South End Press, 1979; Dan Morgan, Merchants of Grain: Power, Profits and Politics Behind the International Grain Trade, Penguin Books, 1980; Susan George, How The Other Half Dies: The Real Reasons For World Hunger, Penguin Books, 1988; Ed., Bade Onimode, The IMF, the World Bank and the African Debt: The Economic Impact, Zed Books, 1989.
 Chief Seattle address on succumbing to the genocidal pressures of the U.S. government in the 19th century.
 Robert Repetto, “Wasting Assets: The Need For National Resource Accounting,” Technology Review, January 1990, p. 40.
 See, e.g., David Ehrenfeld, The Arrogance of Humanism, Oxford University Press, 1978; Thomas Homer-Dixon, The Ingenuity Gap: Facing the Economic, Environmental and Other Challenges of an Increasingly Complex and Unpredictable World, Knopf, 2000; William R. Catton, Jr., Overshoot: The Ecological Basis of Revolutionary Change, University of Illinois Press, 1980; Robert D. Kaplan, The Ends of The Earth: A Journey to the Frontiers of Anarchy, Vintage Books, 1996.
 Thomas Homer-Dixon, “On The Threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict,” International Security, Vol. 16, No. 2, Fall 1991.
 Op cit.
 Wallace Broecker, “Unpleasant Surprises in the Greenhouse?” Nature, Vol. 238, No. 6126, July 9, 1987: p. 124.
 Ross Gelbspan, The Heat Is On: The High Stakes Battle Over the Earth’s Threatened Climate, Addison-Wesley, 1997: p. 16.
 See James Gleick, Chaos: The Making of a New Science.
 Thomas Homer-Dixon, “On The Threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict,” International Security, Fall 1991, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 100-102.
 Michael Perlman, Climatic Mayhem and the Hope of the Earth, American PIE (Public Information on the Environment), Vol. 3, No. 4, Fall 1997, p. 16.
 Janice Longstreth, “Overview of the Potential Health Effects Associated with Ozone Depletion,” in Topping, Coping With Climate Change, pp. 163-167.
 Dr. David Satcher, testimony in Emerging Infections: A Significant Threat to the Nation’s Health, S. Hrg. 104-298, Hearing of the Subcommittee on Labor and Human Resources U.S. Senate, October 18, 1995: p. 12.
 Dr. James Hughes, testimony in Emerging Infections: A Significant Threat to the Nation’s Health, S. Hrg. 104-298, Hearing of the Subcommittee on Labor and Human Resources U.S. Senate, October 18, 1995: p. 16.
 Dr. Robert Shope, testimony in Emerging Infections: A Significant Threat to the Nation’s Health, S. Hrg. 104-298, Hearing of the Subcommittee on Labor and Human Resources U.S. Senate, October 18, 1995: pp. 5-6.
 Dr. Allen Steere, testimony in Emerging Infections: A Significant Threat to the Nation’s Health, S. Hrg. 104-298, Hearing of the Subcommittee on Labor and Human Resources U.S. Senate, October 18, 1995: p. 39.
 Dr. Margaret Hamburg, testimony in Emerging Infections: A Significant Threat to the Nation’s Health, S. Hrg. 104-298, Hearing of the Subcommittee on Labor and Human Resources U.S. Senate, October 18, 1995: p. 33-35.
 See keith harmon snow, “Hidden Epidemics: A Suspicious Silence About Dengue Fever Puts Over Two Billion People at Risk,” Toward Freedom, May 1997: pp. 8-9.
 Dr. Norman Myers, “What We Must Do to Counter the Biotic Holocaust,” International Wildlife, March/April 1999; Dr. Norman Myers, “A Winnowing for Tomorrow’s World,” < http://www.eco-action.org/dt/winnow.html >.
 Michael Perlman, Climatic Mayhem and the Hope of the Earth, American PIE (Public Information on the Environment), Vol. 3, No. 4, Fall 1997, p. 16.
 Ross Gelbspan, The Heat Is On: The High Stakes Battle Over the Earth’s Threatened Climate, Addison-Wesley, 1997: p. 139.
 Bob MacNamara, “Alaska’s Big Ice Melt,” CBS News (online), late April, 2002.
 National Snow and Ice Data Center: “Antarctic Ice Shelf Collapses,” March 16, 2002; “Breakup of Larsen B Ice Shelf,” April 7, 1999, < www.nsidc.org/iceshelves >; “NASA Image Reveals Giant Chip Off Antarctic Ice Block,” NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, March 22, 2001 < www.gsfc.nasa.gov >.
 J.C. Farman, B.G. Gardiner and J.D. Shanklin, “Large Losses of Total Ozone in Antarctica Reveal Seasonal ClOx/NIOx Interaction,” Nature, Vol. 315, No. 6016 (May 16 1985); Stephen Schneider, Global Warming: Are We Entering the Greenhouse Century? Sierra Club, 1989.
 “Ozone Hole Largest Yet,” BBC News, September 8, 2000.
 See Gordon J.F. McDonald, “How To Wreck the Environment,” Unless Peace Comes, 1968.
 Ross Gelbspan, The Heat Is On: The High Stakes Battle Over the Earth’s Threatened Climate, Addison-Wesley, 1997: p. 27, 49.
 Dr. D.W. Schindler, Boreal Mayhem: The Effects of Human Activities on Boreal Landscapes, Western Canada Wilderness Committee, 2001.
 Vacliv Smil, Energy, Food, Environment: Realities, Myths, Options, Oxford University Press, 1987.
 Gelbspan, p. 144; Vacliv Smil, Energy, Food, Environment: Realities, Myths, Options, Oxford University Press, 1987.
 Henry W. Kendall and David Pimentel, “Constraints on the Expansion of the Global Food Supply,” Ambio (Journal of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences), Vol. 23, May 3, 1994.
 Gelbspan, p. 144.
 New York Times, May 3, 2002: p. 1.
 See Peter Wallenstein, “Food Crops as a Factor in Strategic Policy and Action,” in Westing, Global Resources, pp. 146-151; Teresa Hayter and Catherine Watson, AID: Rhetoric and Reality, Pluto Pres, 1985; Hal Sheets and Roger Morris, Disaster in the Desert: Failures of International Relief in the West African Drought, Special Report, The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1974; Richard W. Franke and Barbara H. Chasin, Seeds of Famine: Ecological Destruction and the Development Dilemma in the West African Sahel, Allanheld, Osmun & Co., 1980; keith harmon snow, “The Matrix: Depopulation and Perception Management: Sudan,” Voice, Northampton, MA, March, 2001; Dan Morgan, Merchants of Grain: Power, Profits and Politics Behind the International Grain Trade, Penguin Books, 1980; Susan George, How The Other Half Dies: The Real Reasons For World Hunger, Penguin Books, 1988; Ed., Bade Onimode, The IMF, the World Bank and the African Debt: The Economic Impact, Zed Books, 1989.
 Dr. Norman Myers and Jennifer Kent, Environmental Exodus, The Climate Institute, 1995; Ross Gelbspan, The Heat Is On: The High Stakes Battle Over the Earth’s Threatened Climate, Addison-Wesley, 1997, p. 156.
 Numerous Rockefellers attended Deerfield Academy. Private institutions like Deerfield Academy, with non-profit legal status, expand at the expense of rural communities as their non-profit status earns them major tax deferments in disproportion to the land, buildings and other capital resources they accumulate.
 Dean Roemmich and John McGowan, Science, Vol. 267, March 3, 1995.
 See the numerous references in Gelbspan, The Heat is On, Ch. 6 and notes.
 Usha Lee McFarling, “The Arctic Meltdown: Quick Thaw Alarms Natives and Scientists,” Seattle Times, April 15, 2002.
 Action Alert: “Planned Huge Clear Cuts of Ancient Boreal Forests in Canada,” Peaceful Parks Coalition, October 3, 2000.
 See: Greenwood Watershed Association, < http://www.elksoft.com/gwa/ >; Laura Flanders, “The New York Times’ news ‘Gap’: Ignoring the effect of an environmentalist boycott on Gap’s bottom line,” Working for Change, < www.workingforchange.com/article.cfm?ItemId=12892 >.
 Michael Perlman, A Threat To Timeless Glory: The Sugar Maples Could One Day Fall to Climate Shifts,” Boston Globe, February 22, 1998.
 See Wayne Madsen, Genocide and Covert Operations in Africa, 1993-1999, Mellen Books, 1999, p. 82; keith harmon snow, “Hidden Agendas and the Western Press: Central Africa,” The Voice News, January 4, 2002 (www.thevoicenews.com); and keith harmon snow, “The Matrix: Depopulation and Perception Management – Part Two: Central Africa,” Voice, Northampton, MA, April/May 2001.
 See the Eurasian conservation bulletins from the Sacred Earth Network, Amherst, MA, from 1989 to 2001.
 Gerard Colby and Charlotte Dennett, They Will Be Done: The Conquest of the Amazon: Nelson Rockefeller and Evangelism in the Age of Oil, HarperCollins, 1996.
 The power and influence of “greenhouse skeptics” and industry science is well documented. See, e.g., Willet Kempton, James Boster and Jennifer Hartley, Environmental Values in American Culture, MIT Press, 1995; Ross Gelbspan, The Heat Is On: The High Stakes Battle Over the Earth’s Threatened Climate, Addison-Wesley, 1997; Sharon Beder, Global Spin: The Corporate Assault on Environmentalism, Green Books, 1998.
 Washington Post, September 12, 1989.
 Gelbspan, p. 33.
 Gelbspan, p. 35.
 See Anuual Report 1996, Barrick Gold Corporation.
 For more on the organized crime of the gold, diamond, petroleum and forest cartels, and their links to the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government, see Wayne Madsen, Genocide and Covert Operations in Africa, 1993-1999, Mellen Books, 1999, p. 82; keith harmon snow, “Hidden Agendas and the Western Press: Central Africa,” The Voice News, January 4, 2002 (www.thevoicenews.com); and keith harmon snow, “The Matrix: Depopulation and Perception Management -- Part Two: Central Africa,” Voice, Northampton, MA, April/May 2001.
 See 1996 Annual Report, The Chase Manhattan Corporation; Media Studies Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2, spring/Summer 2000; Forbes Magazine.
 See the numerous publications of Bruno Manser Fonds, < www.bmf.ch >, or of the Western Canada Wilderness Committee < www.wcwc.org >. For a thorough and unprecedented discussion of the most egregious ecological and social hostility of timber industry practices, see Thomas Barnett, The Commission of Inquiry into Aspects of the Timber Industry in Papua New Guinea (the “Barnett Report”), 1990; and keith harmon snow, “Samurais, Sawdust and Shame: Japan and the Tropical Timber Trade, Japan International Journal, May 1993.
 See Wayne Madsen, Genocide and Covert Operations in Africa, 1993-1999, Mellen Books, 1999, p. 82; see also The Matrix: Depopulation and Perception Management – Part Two: Central Africa, Voice, February/March 2001.
 Brent Hoare, “SLAPP Suits: Silencing the Opponents of Destruction,” World Rainforest Report 25, 1993, p. 10.
 Joyce Nelson, Sultans of Sleaze: Public Relations and the Media, Between the Lines, 1989, pp. 133, 138.
 Sharon Beder, Global Spin: The Corporate Assault on Environmentalism, Green Books, 1997, pp. 44-45.
 Brochure, Center for the Defense of Free Enterprise, Center for the Defense of Free Enterprise, (circa 1996).
 National Advisory Board, Center for the Defense of Free Enterprise, (circa 1996).
 Ross Gelbspan, The Heat Is On: The High Stakes Battle Over the Earth’s Threatened Climate, Addison-Wesley, 1997, pp. 90-93.
 See the article by World Bank Oil and Gas Chief Hossein Razavi, “Financing Oil and Gas Projects in Developing Countries,” Finance and Development, June 1996; Gelbspan, p. 97. See also Susan George, The Debt Boomerang: How Third World Debt Harms Us All, Transnational Institute, 1992; Patricia Adams, Odious Debts: Loose Lending, Corruption and the Third World’s Environmental Legacy, Probe International, 1991.
 Overseas Private Investment Corporation Program Handbook, April 1999, p. 5.
 1996 Annual Report: Keeping America Competitive, Export-Import Bank of the United States, 1996.
 “Global Trends 2015,” ABC News, January 19, 2002.
 Op. cit., p. 18.
 Op. cit., p. 19.
 Op. cit., p. 20.
 Op. cit., p. 20.
 Alden Meyer, Union of Concerned Scientists, as quoted in Ross Gelbspan, The Heat is On: The High Stakes Battle Over the Earth’s Threatened Climate, Addison-Wesley, 1997: page 97.
 “Extremism Bests Moderation In Climate Offensive,” World Climate Report (online), April, 2002.
 Press Release, Western Canada Wilderness Committee, February 28, 1994.
 Multinational corporations have already attempted, and succeeded, at privatizing water supplies in some countries.
 Gelbspan, p. 99.